Прочитайте и письменно переведите выделенный курсивом отрывок — контрольная

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Прочитайте и письменно переведите выделенный курсивом отрывок

How Does Smoking Affect Health?

Surgeon General’s report. In 1964 Surgeon General Luther Terry released a 380-page report of a committee that had studied the effects of smoking on health. The committee members had analyzed hundreds of research studies on the effects of smoking. The ten doctors on the committee summarized their findings and recommendations in one sentence: "Cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States to warrant appropriate remedial action" In simpler language this means that smoking is a danger to people’s health, and that something should be clone about it.

The committee made this strong statement because it found that cigarette smoking is directly related to cancer of the lung and lip, chronic bronchitis, heart disease, emphysema (em’fə sē’me), and several other serious diseases.

You can understand that not all smokers have lung cancer or any of the other diseases associated with smoking. Smoking does not cause these diseases in all smokers, for the same reason that cold viruses do not cause colds in all people who are exposed to them. Smoking greatly increases a smoker’s chances of contracting the diseases mentioned. But it does not make it certain that he will contract them.

Smoke affects the heart. Doctors have known for years that the nicotine (nik’ə tēn) in cigarette smoke has several effects on the body. Most of these occur if a smoker inhales the smoke of cigarettes. When the blood absorbs nicotine from the smoke in the lungs, several reactions occur. Some blood vessels contract, thus slowing the flow of blood to the regions served by these vessels. The heart is forced to work harder in order to pump blood through the narrower blood vessels. Thus, the blood pressure rises, and a strain is placed on the heart.

You can see that it would be especially injurious for a person with a heart disease to smoke heavily. In fact the report of the Surgeon General of the United States shows that more smokers die of heart disease than do nonsmokers.

Курение вредит сердцу. Врачи всегда знали, что никотин в сигаретном дыме оказывает свои влияния на тело, многие из которых происходят, если курильщик вдыхает дым от сигарет. Когда кровь поглощает никотин и доносит его до лёгких, происходят некоторые реакции. Кровяные сосуды сужаются, и это приводит к замедлению притока крови к местам, за которые эти сосуды отвечают. Сердце вынуждено работать с большей нагрузкой для того, чтобы накачать кровь через эти более узкие сосуды. Следовательно, поднимается кровяное давление, и сердце работает более напряженно.

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